Introduction to the Producers of the Facts Pages

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and was later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly.

The objective of the UNFCCC is to"stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human-induced) interference with the climate system".

IPCC does not carry out original research, nor does it monitor climate or related phenomena itself. Rather, it assesses published literature, including peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed sources.

IPCC reports cover the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.

IPCC has produced a range of projections of what the future increase in global mean temperature might be.

Chronology - The Protocol and the COP Conferences

1992 – The UN Conference on the Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. It results in the Framework Convention on Climate Change ("FCCC" or "UNFCCC") among other agreements.

1995 – UNFCCC meet in Berlin. The 1st Conference of Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC) to outline specific targets on emissions.

1997 – In December the parties conclude the Kyoto Protocol in Kyoto, Japan, in which they agree to the broad outlines of emissions targets.

COP Conferences

The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties (Conference of the Parties, COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, tonegotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

From 2005 the Conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol" (CMP); also parties to the Convention that are not parties to the Protocol can participate in Protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 the meetings have also been used to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform activities until its conclusion in 2015, which created a general path towards climate action. Quote Wikipedia


The Economist Intelligence Unit’s describes the Democracy Index as a “a snapshot of the state of democracy worldwide for 165 independent states and two territories. This covers almost the entire population of the world and the vast majority of the world’s states (microstates are excluded). The Democracy Index is based on five categories: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. Based on its scores on a range of indicators within these categories, each country is then itself classified as one of four types of regime: “full democracy”; “flawed democracy”; “hybrid regime”; and “authoritarian regime”.”

If you are interested in a specific country you can use the interactive map of The Economist Intelligence Unit’s home page. Go there.


The World Development Indicators were first published as an annex to the 1978 World Development Report. As the world has undergone many changes, World DevelopmentIndicators have grown and adapted alongside it. Country coverage and the range of indicators have expanded: The online database now includes more than 1,400 indicators for more than 220 economies, with some data series extending back more than 50 years. Go there.


The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK) Describe themselves with these words: “…associated with the Institute of Political Science, Heidelberg University, is a registered non-profit association. It is dedicated to research, evaluation, and documentation ofintra- and interstate political conflicts. The HIIK evolved from the research project “COSIMO” (Conflict Simulation Model), led by Prof. Dr. Frank R. Pfetsch (University of Heidelberg) and financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in 1991.” You will find their papers below. Go there.


The International Labour Organization (ILO) is devoted to promoting social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights, pursuing its founding mission that social justice is essential to universal and lasting peace.

Only tripartite U.N. agency, the ILO brings together governments, employers and workers representatives of 187 member States , to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.

Today, the ILO’s Decent Work agenda helps advance the economic and working conditions that give all workers, employers and governments a stake in lasting peace, prosperity and progress. Go there.


The United Nations development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) developed a new version of the global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). The global MPI covers 105 countries in total, which are home to 77 per cent of the world’s population, or 5.7 billion people. Of this proportion, 23 per cent of people (1.3 billion) are identified as multidimensionally poor. Go there.


These are some of the best papers we have found until now. You can go to the project’s own home page or download and read them here.

From their home page: “Enhancing Human Rights Protections in Security Sectors is a three year research and action oriented project seeking to identify and try out innovations strategies for preventing torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment.

Led by the University of Sydney and in partnership with the Centre for the Study of Human Rights at the University of Colombo (Sri Lanka) and the Kathmandu School of Law (Nepal), and working cooperatively with police and military forces in those two countries, the project aims also to create new models of cooperation between different stakeholdersin the field with a view to developing sustainable and contextually sensitive solutions to trenchant human rights problems.”

Their “website provides an overview of the project – how itwas developed, its methodology, approach and aims, its research findings and our next steps. It also includes information about our international project team and upcoming international conference.” Go there.